“Using a well-established model of alphaherpesvirus infection that reaches the brain exclusively via retrograde transsynaptic spread from the periphery, and in vivo two-photon imaging combined with high resolution microscopy, we show that microglia are recruited to and isolate infected neurons within hours. Selective elimination of microglia results in a marked increase in the spread of infection and egress of viral …
Challenging a decades-old model of non-synaptic transmission of acetylcholine, we show that all hippocampal cholinergic terminals establish GABAergic synapses. We demonstrate that these synapses co-transmit GABA and acetylcholine via different vesicles, whose release is triggered by distinct calcium channels. This co-transmission evokes composite postsynaptic potentials, which are mutually cross-regulated by presynaptic autoreceptors. The GABAergic component alone effectively suppresses hippocampal sharp wave-ripples and epileptiform activity. This differentially regulated co-transmission suggests a hitherto unrecognised level of control over cortical states.
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Researchers in the IEM HAS have discovered that in a hub of the fear circuits there are two parallel inhibitory microcircuits providing an equally strong control on neuronal spiking. These two inhibitory networks, however, receive distinct excitatory inputs. For instance, the AMPA receptor content in excitatory synapses along the dendrites of interneurons that belong to the two inhibitory circuits is different revealed by STORM. This study, in which neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques were combined with optogenetics, uncovered organizing principles of wiring between principal cells and inhibitory interneurons in a fear circuit that may be a general feature in cortical networks.
Researcher from the IEM-HAS discovered that back-propagating action potentials are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Using dendritic recordings, calcium imaging and glutamate-uncaging methods they showed that the analogue information about the somatic membrane potential modulate the dendritic action potential waveforms and local calcium influx enabling analog state-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity.
Electron microscopic studies failed to detect the translation machinery in mature mammalian axon terminals for decades. In this study, exploiting the single-molecule sensitivity of N-STORM, scientists from KOKI and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine demonstrated that ribosomal RNA and protein are present in inhibitory axon terminals of the hippocampus, and that local presynaptic protein synthesis is required for the long-term plasticity at these synapses.
“We show that selective elimination of microglia results in dysregulated neuronal activity and increased brain injury after experimental stroke in mice. Microglia-neuron interactions were visualized by N-STORM super-resolution microscopy, which revealed the formation of a direct contact between microglial processes and the neuronal cell body and identified clusters of microglial P2Y12 receptors at microglia-neuron contact sites.
A Nikon mikroszkópok hazai képviselőjeként kapcsolódott be a Nemzeti Agykutatási Programba (NAP) az Auro-Science Consulting Kft. Soós Miklós ügyvezető igazgatót és Kun Andrást, a cég Képalkotás üzletágának vezetőjét arról kérdeztük, milyen hatással lehet a tudományra egy ilyen együttműködés.
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Abstract: Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is rapidly gaining popularity in the life sciences as an efficient approach to visualize molecular distribution with nanoscale precision. However, it has been challenging to obtain and analyze such data within a cellular context in tissue preparations. Here we describe a 5-d tissue processing and immunostaining procedure that is optimized for SMLM, and we provide …